Steven Little, PhD

Steven Little, PhD


Campus: 1250 Benedum Hall

Lab: 440 Benedum Hall

Pittsburgh, PA 15261

Ph: 412-624-9614

Website »


  • PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Academic Affiliation

  • Chairman and CNG Faculty Fellow, Dept. of Chemical Engineering
  • Departments of Bioengineering, Immunology, Opthalmology, and the McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine

Selected Publications

50)  Garlet, G.P., Sfeir, C.S., Little, S.R. A healthy balance: Restoring host-microbe homeostasis via selective chemoattraction of Tregs to control inflammation and promote repair. (Journal of Dental Research, invited feature review, submitted).
49) Balmert, S.C., Zmolek, A.C., Glowacki, A.J., Knab, T.D., Rothstein, S.N., Wokpetah, J., Maskarinec, D., Fedorchak, M.V., Parker, R.S., Little, S.R. Controlled Release of “Sticky” Peptides and Proteins: Effects of Charge on Release Kinetics from Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic) Acid Microspheres. (Journal of Controlled Release, draft in hand).
48) Fedorchak, M.V., Wingard, J., Medina, C., Albeiruti, E., Schuman, J., Little, S.R. In vivo comparison of a single, subconjunctival injection of brimonidine tartrate-loaded microparticles to topical drops over 28 days. (Experimental Eye Research, modifying per peer reviewer’s comments).
47) Rothstein, S.N., Huber, K.D., Sluis-Cremer, N., Little, S.R. (2013) In Vitro Characterization of a Sustained Release Formulation of Enfurvirtide. (Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, e-pub Dec 23, 2013). PMID: 24366751.
46) Mealy, J.E., Fedorchak, M.V., Little, S.R. (2013) In Vitro Characterization of a Controlled Release Ocular Insert for the Delivery of Brimonidine Tartrate. (Acta Biomateriala, 10(1):87-93). PMID: 24080317
45) Glowacki, A.J., Yoshizawa, S.A., Jhunjhunwala, S., Vieira, A.E., Garlet, G.P., Sfeir, C.S., Little S.R. (2013) Prevention of Inflammation-Mediated Bone Loss in Murine and Canine Periodontal Disease via Recruitment of Regulatory Lymphocytes (Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 110(46):18525-30). PMID: 24167272.                                                                                                      Highlighted in: Getting to the Root of Periodontal Disease, (2013) Nature, SciBX 6(45) 6-7. Highlighted on National Public Radio (WESA Pittsburgh) November 4, 2013.               Highlighted by the NIH on the NIDCR’s “Science Spotlight”.
44) Kamalasanan, K., Gottardi, R., Tan, S., Chen, Y., Gonduru, B., Rothstein, S.N., Star, A., Little, S.R.  (2013) Zero Dimensional Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes. (Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 52(43):11308-12). PMID: 24038731
43) Jhunjhunwala, S., Raimondi, G., Nichols, E., Thomson, A.W., Little, S.R. (2013) All-trans Retinoic Acid and Rapamycin Synergize with Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 to Induce Regulatory T Cells with Different Migratory Capacities. (Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 94(5):981-9). PMID: 23898044
42) Rothstein, S.N., Kay, J., Little, S.R. (2012) A Retrospective Mathematical Analysis of Controlled Release Design and Experimentation. (Molecular Pharmaceutics, 9(11):3003-11). PMID: 23009671
41) Li, J., Rothstein, S.N., Little, S.R., Edenborn, H.N., Meyer, T.Y. (2012) The Effect of Monomer Order on the Hydrolysis of Biodegradable Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic acid) Repeating Sequence Copolymers. (Journal of the American Chemical Society 134(39):16352-9). PMID: 22950719
40) Jhunjhunwala, S., Raimondi, G., Glowacki, A. J., Hall, S.H., Maskarenic, D., Thorne, S. H., Thomson, A.W., Little, S.R. (2012) Bio-Inspired Controlled Release of CCL-22 Recruits Regulatory T-cells In Vivo. Advanced Materials, 24:4735–4738). PMID: 22821823
39) Eghtesad, S., Jhunjhunwala, S., Little, S.R., Clemens, P.R. (2012) Local rapamycin treatment decreases immunity induced by vector-mediated dystrophin cDNA expression in adult mdx skeletal muscle. (Scientific Reports (Nature), 2(399)). PMID: 22570764
38) Balmert, S.C., Little, S.R. (2012) Biomimetic Delivery with Micro and Nanoparticles. (Advanced Materials, 24(28):3757-3778). PMID: 22528985
37) Jhunjhunwala, S., Balmert, S.C., Raimondi, G., Dons, E., Nichols, E., Thompson, A.W., Little, S.R. (2012) Controlled Release Formulations of IL-2, TGF-β1 and Rapamycin for the Induction of Regulatory T Cells. (Journal of Controlled Release, 159(1):78-84). PMID: 22285546
36) Tengood, J., Maskarinec, D., Ridenour, R., Little, S.R. (2012) A Mathematical Model for Controlled Release of Biologics from Porous Hollow Fibers. (Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Part A., 100(4):817-26). PMID: 22275332.                                                                                Award winner in the young investigator's category for the society for biomaterials 9th world biomaterials congress, Chengdu, China.
35) Little, S.R. (2012) Re-orienting our View of Particle-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 109(4):999-1000). PMID: 22308523
34) Eghtesad, S., Jhunjhunwala, S., Little, S.R., Clemens, P.R. (2011) Rapamycin ameliorates dystrophic phenotype in mdx mouse skeletal muscle. (Molecular Medicine, 17(9-10):917-924). PMID: 21607286  
33) Dutt, M., Kuksenok, O., Nayhouse, M.J., Little, S.R., Balazs, A.C. (2011) Modeling the Self-assembly of Lipids and Nanotubes in Solution: Forming Vesicles and Bicelles with Trans-membrane Nanotube Channels. (ACS Nano, 5(6):4769-82). PMID: 21604769
32) Kamalasanan, K., Jhunjunwala, S., Wu, J., Swanson, A., Gao, D., Little, S.R. (2011) Anisotropic Microspheres with Soft Protein Islets. (Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 50(37):8706-8708). PMID: 21809425 
31) Dutt, M., Nayhouse, M., Kuksenok, O., Little, S.R., Balazs, A.C. (2011) Interactions of End-functionalized Nanotubes with Lipid Vesicles: Spontaneous Insertion and Nanotube Self-organization. (Current Nanoscience, 7(5):699-715). PMID: N/A
30) Jhunjhunwala, S., Little, S.R., (2011) Microparticulate Systems for Targeted Drug Delivery to Phagocytes. (Cell Cycle, 10(13): 1-2). PMID: 21623160  
29) Tengood, J., Ridenour, R., Brodsky, R., Russell, A., Little, S.R. (2011) Sequential Delivery of basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Platelet Derived Growth Factor for Angiogenesis. (Tissue Engineering Part A, 17(9-10):1181-1189). PMID: 21142700  
28) Dutt, M., Kuksenok, O., Little, S.R., Balazs, A.C. (2011) Forming transmembrane channels using end-functionalized nanotubes. (Nanoscale, 3(1): 240-250). PMID: 20976358  
27) Rothstein, S.N., Little, S.R. (2011) A “tool box” for rational design of degradable controlled release formulations. (Journal of Materials Chemistry, 21: 29 - 39). PMID: N/A  
26) Brito, L., Chandrasekhar, S., Little, S.R., Amiji, M. (2010) Non-Viral eNOS Gene Delivery and Transfection with Stents for the Treatment of Coronary Restenosis. (BioMedical Engineering OnLine, 9(56)). PMID: 20875110
25) Tengood, J., Kovach, K.M., Vescovi, P.E., Russell, A., Little, S.R. (2010) Sequential Delivery of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Sphingosine 1-Phosphate for Angiogenesis. (Biomaterials, 31: 7805-7812).  PMID: 20674008  
24) van Vlerken, L.E., Duan, Z., Little, S.R., Seiden, M.V., Amiji, M.M. (2010) Augmentation of Therapeutic Efficacy in Drug-Resistant Tumor Models Using Ceramide Coadministration in Temporal-Controlled Polymer-Blend Nanoparticle Delivery Systems (The AAPS Journal, 12(2): 171-180). PMID: 20143195
23) Fierro, J.A., Ramirez, V., Silva, C., Ruiz, P., Gleisner, A., Morales, J., Jhunjhunwala, S., Little, S.R., Bono, M.R., Rosemblatt, M. (2010) Transference of Phagosomes in an Allogeneic Immunisation Protocol Down Regulates the Production of Anti-MHC Antibodies and T Cell Mediated Alloreactivity. (American Journal of Transplantation, 10(SI4): 562). PMID: N/A
22) Brito, L.A., Chandrasekhar, S., Little, S.R., Amiji, M.M. (2010) In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Local Arterial Gene Delivery and Transfection using Lipopolyplexes-Embedded Stents. (Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 93(1): 325-36). PMID 19569206
21) Kokai, L.E., Tan, H., Jhunjhunwala, S., Little, S.R., Frank, J., Marra, K.G. (2009) Protein Bioactivity and Polymer Orientation is Affected by Stabilizer Incorporation in Double-Walled Microspheres. (Journal of Controlled Release, 141: 168-176). PMID 19751780
20) Yadav, S., van Vlerken, L.E., Little S.R., Amiji, M.M. (2009) Evaluations of Combination MDR-1 Gene Silencing and Paclitaxel Administration in Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticle Formulations to Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells. (Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 63(4): 711-22). PMID 18618115
19) Rothstein, S.N., Federspiel W.J., Little, S.R. (2009) A Unified Mathematical Model for the Prediction of Controlled Release from Surface and Bulk Eroding Polymer Matrices (Biomaterials 30(8): 1657-64). PMID 19101031  
18) Jhunjhunwala, S., Raimondi, G., Thomson, A., Little, S.R. (2009) Delivery of Rapamycin to Dendritic Cells Using Degradable Microparticles (Journal of Controlled Release, 133: 191-97). PMID 19000726  
17) van Vlerken, L.E., Duan, Z, Little, S.R., Seiden, M.V., Amiji, M. (2008) Biodistribution and Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Paclitaxel and Ceramide Administered in Multifunctional Polymer-Blend Nanoparticles in Drug Resistant Breast Cancer Model. (Mol Pharmaceutics, 5(4) 516-26). PMID 18616278
16) Raimondi, G., Jhunjhunwala, S., Thomson, A.W., Little, S.R. (2008) Targeted delivery of rapamycin to dendritic cells using biodegradable microparticles is highly effective in suppressing their maturation and function.  (American Journal of Transplantation, 8:423 Suppl. 2). PMID N/A
15) Brito, L., Little, S.R., Langer, R, Amiji, M. (2008) (Poly (β-Amino Ester) and Cationic Phospholipid-Based Lipopolyplexes for Gene Delivery and Transfection in Human Aortic Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells. (Biomacromolecules, 9(4) 1179-87). PMID 18307309
14) Rothstein, S.N., Federspiel W. J., Little, S.R. (2008) A Simple Model Framework for the Prediction of Controlled Release from Hydrated Biodegradable Polymer Matrices. (Journal of Materials Chemistry, 18, 1873-80). PMID N/A
13) Little, S.R., Kohane, D.S. (2008) Polymers for Intracellular Delivery of Nucleic Acids (Journal of Materials Chemistry 18, 832 - 41). PMID N/A
12) Choleris, E., Little, S.R., Mong, J.A., Puram, S.V., Langer, R., Pfaff, D.W. (2007) Functional mRNA for Oxytocin Receptor Required in the Amygdala to Support Social Recognition (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(11): 4670-75). PMID 17360582
11) Zugates, G.T., Anderson, D.G., Little, S.R., Lawhorn, E.B., Langer, R. (2006) Synthesis of Poly(β-Amino Ester)s with Thiol-Reactive Side Chains for DNA Delivery. (Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128(39):12726-34). PMID 17002366
10) Devalapally, H., Shenoy, D., Little, S.R., Langer, R., Amiji, M. (2006) Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Modified Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Nanoparticles as a pH-Sensitive System for Tumor-Targeted Delivery of Hydrophobic Drugs: Part 3. Therapeutic Efficacy and Toxicity Studies in Ovarian Cancer Xenograft Model (Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 59(4): 477-84). PMID 16862429                                                                                                                                         Highlighted in: Nano-Bullets For Ovarian Cancer. (2006) MIT Technology Review, September Edition.
9) Little, S.R., Langer, R. (2005) Non-Viral Delivery of Cancer Genetic Vaccines. (Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, 99: 93-118). PMID: 16568889
8) Pfeifer, B.A., Burdick, J.A., Little, S.R., Langer, R. (2005) Poly(Ester-Anhydride):Poly(β-Amino Ester) Micro-and Nanospheres: DNA Encapsulation and Cellular Transfection. (International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 304(1-2): 210-9). PMID 16174553 
7) Wood, K.C., Little, S.R., Langer, R., Hammond, P.T. (2005) A New Family of Hierarchically Self-Assembling Linear-Dendritic Hybrid Polymers for Highly Efficient, Targeted Gene Delivery (Angewandte Chemie, 44(41): 6704-8). PMID: 16173106                                                        Highlighted in: A Synthetic Solution to Gene Delivery. (2005) Nature Methods 2(11): 808
6) Zugates, G.T., Little, S.R., Anderson, D.G., Langer, R. (2005) Poly(β-Amino Ester)s for DNA Delivery. (Israel Journal of Chemistry, 45: 477-85). PMID N/A
5) Shenoy, D., Little, S.R., Langer, R., Amiji, M. (2005) Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Modified Poly(β-Amino Ester) Nanoparticles as a pH-Sensitive System for Tumor-Targeted Delivery of Hydrophobic Drugs: Part 2. In Vivo Distribution and Tumor Localization Studies. (Pharmaceutical Research, 22(12): 2107-14). PMID 16254763
4) Shenoy, D., Little, S.R., Langer, R., Amiji, M. (2005) Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Modified Poly(β-Amino Ester) Nanoparticles as a pH-Sensitive System for Tumor-Targeted Delivery of Hydrophobic Drugs: Part 1. In Vitro Evaluations. (Molecular Pharmaceutics, 2(5): 357-66). PMID 16196488
3) Little, S.R., Lynn, D.M., Puram, S.V., Langer, R. (2005) Formulation and Characterization of Poly(β-Amino Ester) Microparticles for Genetic Vaccine Delivery. (Journal of Controlled Release, 107(3): 449-162). PMID 16112767
2) Haining, N.W., Anderson, D.G., Little, S.R., Bergwelt, M., Cardoso, A.A., Alves, P., Kosmatopoulos, K., Nadler, L.M., Langer, R., Kohane, D.S. (2004) pH-Triggered Microparticles for Vaccination. (Journal of Immunology, 15;173(4): 2578-85). PMID 15294974                  Highlighted in: Timing is Everything. (2004) Nature Methods 1(1), 9
1) Little, S.R., Lynn, D.M., Ge, Q., Anderson D.G.,  Puram S.V., Chen J., Eisen H.N., Langer, R. (2004) Novel Microparticles Enhance the Potency of Non-Viral Genetic Vaccines. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(26): 9534-39). PMID: 15210954

Research Interests

  • Immunotherapeutics, Biomimetic Controlled Release, Regulatory T Cells